Sunday , 21 January 2018

Direct and indirect speech


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Direct and indirect speech


Direct and indirect speech

In English language there are two ways to narrate a speech or convey the spoken words of a person. One is to quote the exact words of the person and the other is to narrate the speech in your own words.

These two different narrations are referred as

  • Direct speech
  • Indirect speech

Direct speech:

In direct speech the narrator is quoting the exact words of the speaker. The exact words of the narrator are written inside the inverted comas.

Example:

He said, “I am going to win the tournament”.

She said,” You are not going on that trip”.

Mr. Aslam said, “You will call your father”.

Indirect Speech:

In indirect speech the exact words of the narrator are not mentioned. The narration is mentioned in the conveyer’s version. Inverted commas are not used in the indirect speech. When “coma” is removed, “that” is used as a conjunction.

Examples:

He said that he was going to win the tournament.

She said that I was not going on the trip.

Mr. Aslam said that I would call my father.

 

 

Reported speech and reporting speech

The direct speech has been divided into two sections first one is reported speech and the second one is reporting speech.

The part of the sentence before the inverted commas is called reported speech and the part of the sentence inside the inverted commas is called reported speech.

He said,         “You have broken the window”.

           

Reported speech      reporting speech

Change of tense in reporting speech

If the reported speech is in present or future tense the tense doesn’t change in the reporting speech.

If the reported speech is in the past tense the tense change in the reporting speech will be as follows.

S.NO

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

01

Present Indefinite Tense

Past Indefinite Tense

02

Present Continuous Tense

Past Continuous Tense

03

Present Perfect Tense

Past Perfect Tense

04

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

05

Past Indefinite Tense

Past Perfect Tense

06

Past Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

07

Past Perfect Tense

Remains Unchanged

08

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Remains Unchanged

09

Future Indefinite Tense

Would

10

Future Continuous Tense

Would be

11

Future Perfect Tense

Would have

12

Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Would have been